If you own or lease your vehicle for business purposes, the IRS allows you to write off some of the cost of the vehicle via depreciation or lease expense. For the 2019 tax year, the IRS has updated the inflation-adjusted “luxury automobile” limits on certain deductions taxpayers can take for passenger automobiles — including light trucks and vans — used in their businesses. Revenue Procedure 2019-26 includes different limits for purchased and leased automobiles that may or may not be eligible for bonus first-year depreciation.
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) amended Internal Revenue Code (IRC) Section 168(k) to extend and modify bonus depreciation for qualified property purchased after September 27, 2017, and before January 1, 2023, including business vehicles. Businesses can expense 100% of the cost of such property (both new and used, subject to certain conditions) in the year the property is placed in service.
The amount of the allowable deduction will begin to phase out in 2023, dropping 20% each year for four years until it expires in 2027, absent congressional action. The applicable percentage for qualified property acquired before September 28, 2017, and placed in service in 2019, is 30%.
However, 100% (or 30%) bonus depreciation is available only for heavier business vehicles that aren’t considered passenger automobiles. The maximum bonus depreciation amount for passenger automobiles is much smaller.
IRC Sec. 280F limits the depreciation deduction allowed for luxury passenger automobiles for the year they’re placed into service and each succeeding year. The TCJA amended the provision to increase the Sec. 280F first-year limit for qualified property acquired and placed after September 27, 2017, by $8,000. It increased the limit on first-year depreciation for qualified property acquired before September 28, 2017, and placed in service in 2019, by $4,800.
The new guidance includes three depreciation limit tables for purchased autos placed in service in calendar year 2019:
Limits for passenger automobiles acquired before September 28, 2017, that qualify for bonus depreciation are:
Limits for passenger automobiles acquired after September 27, 2017, that qualify for bonus depreciation are:
Limits for passenger autos that do NOT qualify for bonus depreciation are:
The bonus depreciation deduction is not available for automobiles for 2019 if the business:
The new guidance also includes the so-called “income inclusion” table for passenger automobiles first leased in 2019 with a fair market value (FMV) of more than $50,000. The FMV is the amount that would be paid to buy the car in an arm’s-length transaction, generally the capitalized cost specified in the lease.
Taxpayers that lease a passenger automobile for use in their business can deduct the part of the lease payment that represents business use. Thus, if the car is used solely for business, the full cost of the lease is deductible.
Alternatively, taxpayers always have the option to deduct the standard mileage rate rather than calculating the actual costs of using the vehicle. The deduction is calculated by multiplying the standard mileage rate (58 cents in 2019) by the number of business miles traveled.
IRC Sec. 280F requires the deduction to be reduced by an amount that’s substantially equivalent to the limits on the depreciation deductions imposed on owners of passenger automobiles. The idea is to balance out the tax benefits of leasing a luxury car versus purchasing it.
Lessees must add a lease inclusion amount to taxable income each year of the lease to achieve parity with the depreciation limits. The income inclusion amount is determined by applying a formula to an amount obtained from the IRS table. The latter amount depends on the initial FMV of the leased auto and the year of the lease term. Although the $50,000 FMV threshold for 2019 is unchanged from 2018, many of the other values in the new table have changed since then.
For example, let’s say you leased a car with an FMV of $56,500 on January 1, 2019, for three years and placed it in service that same year. You use the car for business purposes only. According to the table, your income inclusion amounts for each year of the lease would be as follows:
The annual income inclusion amount may seem small compared to the depreciation deduction limits, but it represents a permanent tax difference. The depreciation limits, on the other hand, represent a timing difference that the business will recover over time through depreciation deductions or when it disposes of the auto.
The new tax rules for vehicles used in business generally are favorable but can be difficult to implement. Consult with your tax advisors to discuss your particular situation.
Please contact a member of your service team, or contact Adam Fink at firstname.lastname@example.org for further discussion.
Cohen & Company is not rendering legal, accounting or other professional advice. Information contained in this post is considered accurate as of the date of publishing. Any action taken based on information in this blog should be taken only after a detailed review of the specific facts, circumstances and current law.
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